A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, which overflows or breaks levees, with the result that some of the water escapes its usual boundaries.
While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, it is not a significant flood unless such escapes of water endanger land areas used by man like a village, city or other inhabited area.
Floods can also occur in rivers, when flow exceeds the capacity of the river channel, particularly at bends or meanders. Floods often cause damage to homes and businesses if they are placed in natural flood plains of rivers. While flood damage can be virtually eliminated by moving away from rivers and other bodies of water, since time out of mind, people have lived and worked by the water to seek sustenance and capitalize on the gains of cheap and easy travel and commerce by being near water.
expanse (n) a large, open area of land, sea or sky
submerge (v) to cover something completely
directive (n) an official instruction
define (v) to say what the meaning of something
levee (n) a wall made of land or other materials that is built
next to a river to stop the river from overflowing
boundary (n) the limit of a subject
precipitation (n) a way of behaving too quickly and without thinking
significant (adj.) important or noticeable
endanger (v) damage or destroy
inhabit (v.) to live in a place
exceed (v) to be greater than a number or amount
meander(v) If a river, stream or road meanders, it follows a
route which is not straight or direct
virtually (adv.) almost
eliminate (v) to remove or take away
sustenance (n) food
Questions for discussing ( คำถามเพื่ออภิปราย )
Follow up activity (กิจกรรมเสนอแนะ )